主要销售市场的强劲经济复苏使德国的机械出口在 2021 年强劲增长。机械出口名义增长近 10%，达到 1794 亿欧元。 2019 年 1817 亿欧元的危机前水平因此仅差一点就错过了。然而，仅仅重新夺回机械工程世界出口冠军的头衔是不够的，中国竞争对手进一步扩大了领先优势。中国机械出口增长超过26%，达到2101亿欧元。
“欧盟国内市场的发展是一个令人担忧的因素。中国对欧盟（不包括德国）的机械出口增长了 32%，增速明显快于德国对欧盟伙伴国家的机械出口（增长 11%）。这意味着中国去年在欧盟的市场份额也有所增加， “然而，值得注意的是，中国机械出口的很大一部分来自外国公司在中国运营或以合资形式持有股份的制造设施。”
2017 年，外资企业机械出口占中国机械出口总额的比重约为 27%。合资企业的机械出口占比也略低于 14%。这意味着外资持股的公司占出口的 41%。“ 没有按所有权结构划分的最新出口数据。然而，至少三分之一的中国机器仍可能来自外资公司。 “这也包括德国公司的参与。”然而，从机械工程行业的各个部门来看，外资公司的出口成功可能会有很大差异。以2017年为例，外资企业在中国工业机器人出口中的出口份额仍超过80%。
对中国最新出口数据的分析，为中国机械出口企业的区域定位提供了启示。例如，欧盟、东盟和北美这三个销售市场对它们的重要性大致相同。 2021 年，价值 350 亿欧元的机械出口到所有三个地区。相比之下，去年从德国向欧盟伙伴国家出口价值略低于 710 亿欧元的机械，占总额的比例略低于 44%德国机械出口。这表明了欧洲国内销售市场对德国机械出口商的巨大重要性。价值 198 亿欧元的机器运往北美，只有 44 亿欧元的机器运往东盟。
中国机械出口前 5 位的销售国是美国（增长 22% 至 311 亿欧元）、日本（增长 22% 至 111 亿欧元）、越南（增长 30% 至 105 亿欧元）、印度（增长 39% 89 亿欧元）和德国（增长 40% 至 85 亿欧元）。
2021 年，中国对俄罗斯的机械出口增长了 55%，达到 80 亿欧元。中国制造商向乌克兰提供了价值 11 亿欧元的机械（增长 44%）。去年德国对俄罗斯的机械出口增长了 3.8%，达到 55 亿欧元，其中价值 11 亿美元的“德国制造”机械出口到乌克兰。 “由于高收益，中国现在是俄罗斯第一大外国机械供应商。然而，就各自的出口总额而言，俄罗斯和乌克兰对中国和德国的综合销售市场处于相似且可控的水平，各自不到 5%。然而，由于俄罗斯入侵乌克兰以及欧洲和俄罗斯实施的影响深远的相互制裁，在可预见的未来，这些份额可能会发生显着变化。
Germany and China Dominate Global Machinery Exports
The strong economic recovery in key sales markets gave a major boost to machinery exports from Germany in 2021. However, it was not enough to recapture the title of world export champion, with Chinese competitors further extending their lead.
The strong economic recovery in key sales markets gave machinery exports from Germany a strong boost in 2021. Machinery exports rose by almost 10 percent in nominal terms to 179.4 billion euros. The pre-crisis level of 181.7 billion euros in 2019 was thus only narrowly missed. However, it was not enough to recapture the title of world export champion in mechanical engineering, with Chinese competitors further extending their lead. Machinery exports from China rose by more than 26 percent to 210.1 billion euros.
“The development in the EU domestic market is a worrying factor. With an increase of 32 percent, Chinese machinery exports to the EU excluding Germany grew significantly faster than German machinery exports to EU partner countries (plus 11 percent). This means that China also increased its market share in the EU last year, However, it is important to note that a significant proportion of China’s machinery exports come from manufacturing facilities operated by foreign companies in China or in which they have a stake in the form of joint ventures.”
Foreign investors play important role for China
The share of foreign owned companies machinery exports of Chinese total machinery exports was around 27 percent in 2017. Joint venture companies were also responsible for just under 14 percent of machinery exports. This meant that companies with foreign ownership accounted for 41 percent of exports. “More recent export data by ownership structure is not available. However, at least one in three machines from China is still likely to come from companies with foreign ownership,This also includes engagements of German companies. Yet it is not possible to quantify how large this number is with the available data.” A look at the sectors of the mechanical engineering industry, however, shows that export successes by foreign owned companies can vary greatly. In 2017, for example, the export share of foreign owned companies in Chinese industrial robot exports was still over 80 percent.
Germany Ranks Fifth Among Customer Countries For China
The analysis of China’s latest export data provides revealing results for the regional positioning of Chinese machinery exporters. For example, the three sales markets of the EU, ASEAN and North America are of roughly equal importance to them. Machinery worth 35 billion euros was exported to all three regions in 2021. By way of comparison, machinery worth just under 71 billion euros was exported from Germany to the EU partner countries last year, which corresponds to a share of just under 44 percent of total German machinery exports. This shows the enormous importance of the domestic European sales market for machinery exporters from Germany. Machinery worth 19.8 billion euros was shipped to North America and only 4.4 billion euros worth of machinery to ASEAN.
The top 5 sales countries for machinery exports from China are the USA (up 22 percent to 31.1 billion euros), Japan (up 22 percent to 11.1 billion euros), Vietnam (up 30 percent to 10.5 billion euros), India (up 39 percent to 8.9 billion euros) and Germany (up 40 percent to 8.5 billion euros).
Significantly More Chinese Machinery Exports To Russia
Machinery exports from China to Russia increased by 55 percent to 8.0 billion euros in 2021. To Ukraine, manufacturers from China supplied machinery worth 1.1 billion euros (up 44 percent). Machinery exports from Germany to Russia increased by 3.8 percent to 5.5 billion euros last year, with “Made in Germany” machinery worth 1.1 billion delivered to Ukraine. “China is now by far the number one foreign machinery supplier in Russia due to the high gains. However, in terms of their respective total exports, the combined sales market of Russia and Ukraine for China and Germany is at a similar, manageable level of less than 5 percent each,” As a result of the Russian invasion of Ukraine and the far-reaching mutual sanctions imposed by Europe and Russia, however, the shares are likely to shift noticeably in the foreseeable future.